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Diversity in Media , Privilege in the Media

Social justice activists and writers have built on Peggy McIntosh’s original essay on privilege in 1988, by adding to and modifing the original list to highlight how privilege is not merely about race or gender, but that it is a series of interrelated hierarchies and power dynamics that touch all facets of social life: race, class, gender, sexual orientation, religion, education, gender identity, age, physical ability, passing, etc. These categories will be further discussedbelow.

One thing to keep in mind when looking at how privilege operates is that privilege, discrimination, and social groups all operate within interrelated hierarchies of power, dominance, and exclusion. Just because someone is privileged in one way doesn’t mean they may not be underprivileged in another (and vice-versa). It is therefore important to be aware of the various groups to which one belongs in order to be able to question our own participation in a system of discrimination andprivilege.

There are many different kinds of privilege that exist but regardless of how groups are divided, the privileged group is the one that is commonly treated as the baseline against which the others are judged or compared – it is seen as “ordinary”. Consider some of the following kinds ofprivilege:

Ability: Being able-bodied and without mental disability. Actors with disabilities frequently find themselves passed up for roles even if those roles are for characters with the same disability. Moreover, while fully enabled actors are often cast in roles as disabled characters, actors with a disability are almost never asked to play enabled characters. Individuals who are mentally enabled never find their status used as a justification for criminal behaviour in film and television, but we often see mental illness portrayed in exactly such alight.

C lass: Class can be understood both in terms of and , both of which provide privilege. Social class can determine access to opportunities, to participation in politics, and opens up particular educational and vocational doors more easily. From a social and media standpoint, consider how different social classes are represented. It is also important to note that the majority of the media are created by and for a specific social class. How are certain jobs portrayed in the media compared toothers?

Education: Access to higher education confers with it a number of privileges as well. Educational privilege opens a number of doors to higher paying careers (which links it to social class privilege). Educational privilege can also confer unearned credibility on an individual: For instance, many television and radio show hosts append the prefix “Dr.” to their name in order to use a PhD. to suggest they can offer medical or psychiatricadvice.

Gender: Male-identified, masculine individuals still hold a level of privilege over people of other genders. Another word for the systemic operation of male privilege is “patriarchy”. In the media, we still see male authority superseding others. Men continue to be overrepresented in leadership roles and as news commentators. Men, their stories, and their perspectives continue to be vastly overrepresented in video games, film, and television programs, both onscreen and behind thescenes.

Gender Identity: While often linked to sexual orientation and gender privilege, this is the privilege that comes with having a gender identity (how one identifies and express oneself in gendered terms) that conforms to the gender identity that was assigned at birth and to societal and cultural expectations of such a gender identity. In terms of media representation, it is extremely rare to find representations of individuals whose gender identity does not conform to cultural expectations. In the rare instances that such characters are portrayed, their gender-nonconformity is typically used to elicit fear, apprehension, or laughter, or may be portrayed as a kind of mentalillness.

Passing: Passing is the ability to appear to belong to another group. The ability to pass is itself a privilege because it allows an individual to claim the advantages of a more privileged group. In the media, passing becomes easier for certain groups than for others and certain types of passing are particularly celebrated: Consider, for instance, how a straight, white, mentally and physically enabled man is often congratulated for his “courage” in playing a gay man or a person with a mental disability in a film or television. At the same time, we rarely see many accolades when a queer-identified individual plays straight and there are rare instances in which a person with an apparent disability plays a character who is fully enabled. Race-bending (changing the race of a character for a film or television adaptation), whitewashing (making characters of ambiguous or unstated ethnicity white), blackface, “cripface”, and a variety of other practices all help to illustrate how passing becomes a privilege in the media. If one considers that in Hollywood 82 per cent of lead roles are for characters of Caucasian ethnicity, we can see how tangible a privilege passing canbe.

Racial: In the West, racial privilege is usually equated with white privilege since power, money, and influence tends to be concentrated among Caucasians in Western Europe and North America. Racial privilege is institutionalized racism: a system that is structured to privilege one group over others. In the media, consider how race plays into determining character types androles.

Religious: Religious privilege comes with being a member of the dominant religion in a culture – to have one’s own religious practices and observances recognized as the norm. In North America and much of Europe, Christian faiths hold privilege over most others. In the media, religious privilege translates to a normalizing of one’s tenets of faith while alternative faiths are often portrayed as novel, strange, or even overlymystical.

Sexuality: Heterosexual privilege includes the assumption that everyone is heterosexual which forces Queer people to be constantly undergoing a coming out process in their daily lives. In the media, we rarely see lead characters who are Queer-identified unless the character’s sexuality is pivotal to the plot. Conversely, heterosexual characters enact their sexuality constantly (the presence of things like wedding rings, photos of children, discussions about one’s spouse in various media are all indications of a character’s sexuality, but are hardly ever noticed by the audience. This is not the case if the character is in a same-sex relationship) but it goes unnoticed because of its privileged status. Sexuality privilege also includes sexual practices and sexual history – the media often associates a woman’s worth with her sexual history through the hypersexualization of women, but also by relating a girl’s self-worth to her chastity and the public disparagement of women who are sexually active. This links sexuality privilege to gender privilege aswell.

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Add a Conditional Split


A Conditional Split is a component in the visual Flow builder that creates two distinct paths in a flow, branching based on defined characteristics of your recipients.

This component is helpful if you want to create a single flow but then curate different content for recipients based on what you already know about them (e.g. gender, location, past purchase history etc.).

For example, for a Welcome Series, you can use a Conditional Split to branch your flow based on whether or not a subscriber is already a customer. You may want to customize your content differently for new subscribers you want to convert to first-time buyers vs. those that have already purchased from you in the past.

To add a new Trigger Split into a flow series, drag the Conditional Split component from the sidebar and drop it where you would like to create this split. After you drop the Conditional Split into your flow, you will automatically see a YES and NO path appear below it.


If you insert a Conditional Split mid-way into a flow, by default all components below that point will be placed on the YES path. If you'd like to automatically swap all components on the YES and NO paths of your split, click the Settings icon (three dots) and choose "Flip Split" option.

In the lefthand sidebar, you will be able to define the logic for your Conditional Split.The workflow here is the same as what you will find in Klaviyo's Segment Builder as well as when configuring Flow Filters:

What someone has done (or not done) Properties about someone If someone is in or not in a list Random Sample

As you set the conditions for your split, keep in mind recipients that meet your conditions will go down the YES path and those that don't meet the conditions will go down the NO path.

With the "Random Sample" option within a Conditional Split, you can begin running tests on sequences of email instead of just A/B testing individual emails.

Here are some ways you may want to use a random split to test and optimize sequences in your flow:

Find the right cadence by testing the timing between emails Determine if discounting is needed to drive conversion rates

When individuals enter your flow, they will automatically get queued up for all emails and split components in your series based on the Time Delays you've set. If you've placed a Time Delay before a split, recipients will wait at this split and not get scheduled for any emails below it. After a recipient gets evaluated at a split, we will then schedule him/her for emails down the YES or NO path as appropriate.

Dr. Warren Larson

former director of the Zwemer Center for Muslim Studies and professor at Colombia International University Seminary and School of Missions

Dr. Warren Larson

former director of the Zwemer Center for Muslim Studies and professor at Colombia International University Seminary and School of Missions

In Engaging Islamic Traditions Power scrutinizes and evaluates the Hadith to point out that Christians should use it as an avenue to engage Muslims. He begins with a brief description of the contents of the Hadith and its significance for Islamic life. He also writes that there are truths in the Hadith that are shared with the Bible that will help establish “common ground between Muslims and Christians,” as well as provide avenues for discussion to point Muslims to revealed truth in the Bible. In Section Two, Power discusses the “concord” between Islam and Christianity, touching on topics such as positive aspects in the life of Muhammad; positive ways in which both Muhammad and Jesus treated women; and theological and devotional, as well as ethical, elements that the Hadith and Christian teaching share. Section Three emphasizes connections between the Hadith and Christian teaching that serve as points of dialogue to draw Muslims’ attention to Christ. Power highlights the character and actions of God; the nature of human beings; forgiveness and punishment of sins; inadequacy of works for eternal destiny, and the connection between ‘deeds’ and ‘rewards;’ and the significance of the cross. In Section Four, Powers focuses on practical implications for Christian ministry and offers a very helpful discussion of three types of dialogue for engaging Muslims, all of which stem from overlaps between Christian teachings and the Hadith. Power’s irenic, positive, and bridge-building tone is particularly appropriate, and will instruct and encourage Christians seeking to engage Muslims with the gospel of Christ in a time when there is so much negative perception of and animosity towards Muslims and Islam. Both these books are well researched, drawing deeply from Christian and Muslim scholars. They provide rich information about Islamic life, knowledge, and comprehension which will go a long way in endearing Christians to Muslims in the course of their dialogue.

Amit A. Bhatia, PhD

adjunct professor, Trinity International University; Fellow, Billy Graham Center for Evangelism

Transliteration Table Illustrations Figures Sidebars Tables Introduction

I About the Hadith 1. What Is the Hadith? 2. Classifying the Hadith 3. Can Christians Use the Hadith?

II Finding Concord 4. Positive Aspects of Muhammad’s Life 5. Positive Treatment and Depiction of Women 6. Theological Aspects 7. Ethical Issues

III Seeking Connections 8. The Character and Actions of God 9. The Nature of Humankind 10. The Forgiveness of Sins 11. The Inadequacy of Works 12. Avoiding Punishment for One’s Sins 13. Gaining Reward 14. Pictures of the Cross 15. Appropriating the Cross

IV Using the Hadith in Christian Ministry 16. Dialogue with Muslims 17. Discussion with Muslims 18. Conclusion

Appendix Bibliography Index

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Spiritual Realities in the Buddhist World

by: Paul H. De Neui (Editor)

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Buddhism claims no god, yet spiritual realities abound in popular practice. What are these realities? What do they mean to the practitioners? How can understanding these realities inform Christ-followers seeking to communicate the good news of Jesus in ways that all can understand and relate to? In answer to these and other questions, SEANET proudly presents its twelfth volume, Seeking the Unseen: Spiritual Realities in the Buddhist World. Christian practitioners from thirteen different Buddhist cultures share insights gained from their wideranging experiences and perspectives. From Sri Lanka to Japan, from China to the Philippines, these women and men, Asian and Western, present on a topic that is often missing in mission literature today. And for readers seeking personal insight into the growing spiritual complexities of their own place in the postmodern world, lessons from these authors will guide you with practical principles from engaging, firsthand cultural encounters.

Introduction Contributors

Part I: Biblical Framework 1. Moving beyond Warfare: Biblical Imagery and the Conduct of Mission Dwight P. Baker

2. Spiritual Realities in the Gospels and Implications for Discipleship among Oral Learners in Northeast Thailand Mark Caldwell

3. Buddhist Spiritual Realities:

Divining and Discerning the Future Alex G. Smith 4. Transforming Power Encounters into People Movements in the Buddhist World and Beyond David S. Lim

Part II: Cultural Practices 5. How Buddhist Spirituality Influences and Shapes Asian Cultural Practices: Missiological Implications Sheryl Takagi Silzer 6. The Impact of Buddhism on Ancestor Veneration in Vietnam: Harmless Cross-Cultural Assimilation or Dark Spiritual Influence? Tin Nguyen 7. “I Believe for 50%”: Negotiating Spiritual and Scientific Realities in Contemporary Thai Cosmologies Daniëlle Koning 8. Rituals for Blessing and Destruction among the Rgyalrongwa of Sichuan, China David Burnett 9. An Evangelical Christian Analysis of Theravada Buddhist Spirituality Expressed in the Almsgiving Ceremony G. P. V. Somaratna

Part III: Mission Strategy 10. A Post-3/11 Paradigm for Mission in Japan Hiroko Yoshimoto, Simon Cozens, Mitsuo Fukuda, Yuji Hara, Atsuko Tateishi, Ken Kanakogi, Toru Watanabe 11. Spiritual Realities in the Folk Buddhist Worldview of Sri Lanka Ravin Caldera 12. Signs and Wonders: Necessary but Not Sufficient Alan R. Johnson 13. Christian Response to Burmese Nat Worship in Myanmar Peter Thein Nyunt 14. People of Power: Becoming an “Alongsider” in Thailand and Beyond John P. Lambert

Index Scripture Index

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Searching Questions about the Hadith from a Christian Perspective

by: Bernie Power (Author)

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The Hadith are Islam’s most influential texts after the Qur’an. They outline in detail what the Qur’an often leaves unsaid. The Hadith are a foundation for Islamic law and theology and a key to understanding the worldview of Islam and why many Muslims do the things they do. This book subjects the Hadith to a critical analysis from a biblical perspective. In a scholarly and respectful way, it exposes significant inconsistencies within these ancient documents and highlights potential problems with the Muslim-Christian interface.

This study is certainly original and has implications for Christian theology and mission which are profound, as well as urgent. It will assist theologians, missiologists and missionaries in their work. —BISHOP Michael Nazir-Ali

© 2018 Gino Arcaro All rights reserved